2022 Ohio Education
by the Numbers

2022 Ohio Education by the Numbers - Photo of students in classroom setting

The Thomas B. Fordham Institute is pleased to present the fifth edition of Ohio Education By The Numbers. This website provides an impartial, fact-based overview of K-12 education in the Buckeye State. We hope these data will help to inform conversations about improving education throughout the state. If you have ideas on how this could be improved and made more useful to you, write to us at ohiogadfly@fordhaminstitute.org. For more information about the Institute and its work, please visit www.fordhaminstitute.org/ohio

View the Report

Student
Enrollment
Student Enrollment - Photo of students in classroom setting

Ohio Public School Students Ohio has nearly 1.6 million public school students of varying backgrounds and characteristics.

Ohio student characteristics table

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2020-21). Note: Public school enrollment statistics include traditional district and charter/STEM school students, but do not include students attending joint-vocational districts and educational service centers, pupils attending non- public schools, or home schooled students. More information about those enrollments are found in the “School Options” section.

Public School Enrollment by Grade Level Ohio has approximately 120,000 public school students per grade level.

Ohio students grade level table

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2020-21).

Ohio students public school enrollment by race or ethnicity chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2005-06 to 2020-21). Note: The percentages refer to the percent change from 2006 to 2021. The chart displays the second half of the school year, a convention often used in this guide.

Public School Enrollment Trends Since 2005-06, public school enrollment has increased significantly among Hispanic, multiracial, and Asian/Pacific Islander students.

Ohio students public school enrollment trend by selected characteristics chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2005-06 to 2020-21). Note: The percentages refer to the percent changes from 2006 to 2021.

Public School Enrollment Trends by Selected Characteristics Since 2005-06, English learner enrollment has doubled, while the number of students with disabilities has remained consistent. The number of students identified as gifted has declined.

Ohio students public school enrollment by selected characteristics chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2005-06 to 2020-21). Note: The percentages refer to the percent changes from 2006 to 2021.

Low Income Students The percentage of economically disadvantaged (ED) students has increased significantly since 2005-06. However, the percentage of Ohio children living in poverty has not increased.

Ohio Students poverty and economic disadvantage chart

Sources: Economically disadvantaged (ED) data are from Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2005-06 to 2020-21); childhood poverty data are from the Annie E. Casey Foundation, Kids Count Data Center and based on U.S. Census poverty estimates (data are not yet available for 2020 and 2021). Notes: Students are identified as ED via federal meal programs, open to pupils from households with incomes at or below 185% of federal poverty. However, in 2010, Congress passed the Community Eligibility Provision, which allows certain schools to deem all students as ED (even higher-income children) for the purposes of meals eligibility. In contrast, children in poverty are from households at or below 100% federal poverty.

Ohio School Districts and Typologies For analytic purposes, ODE categorizes districts into “typologies” based on their geographic and socio-economic characteristics. This publication displays various statistics by typology to illustrate different patterns of pupil enrollment and achievement across the state.

Ohio student school districts and typologies map

Source: Ohio Department of Education, School District Typology. Note: This map displays the border of each district and its corresponding typology.

Public School Students by Typology 28 and 34 percent of Ohio students reside in urban and suburban communities, respectively; 15 percent live in rural areas and another 21 percent are from small towns.

Ohio students public school by typology table

Source: Author calculations based on Ohio Department of Education (ODE) SY 2020-21 downloadable files titled “District Overview” for school district data and “Building Overview” for charter and STEM schools. Note: Public charter and STEM schools are assigned to the typology of the district in which the school is located, as reported in ODE’s community school directory. Online charters—also known as e-schools—are not included in a typology, since they can enroll students statewide.

Public School Students in Urban Areas Students living in urban areas come from various race and ethnic backgrounds, and more than eight in ten are identified as economically disadvantaged.

Ohio students characteristics in urban areas table

Source: Author calculations based on Ohio Department of Education SY 2020-21 downloadable files titled “District Disaggregated” for school district data and “Building Disaggregated” for charter and STEM schools. Note: This table combines districts and charters in both of the urban typologies (i.e., urban: very high poverty and urban: high poverty).

Public School Students in Suburban Areas Students from suburban areas are majority white, with modest racial and ethnic diversity. About one in four suburban students are economically disadvantaged, the lowest percentage across Ohio’s typologies.

Ohio students characteristics in suburban areas table

Source: Author calculations based on Ohio Department of Education SY 2020-21 downloadable files titled “District Disaggregated” for school district data and “Building Disaggregated” for charter and STEM schools. Note: This table combines districts and charters in both of the suburban typologies (i.e., suburban: very low poverty and suburban: low poverty).

Public School Students in Small Town Areas The large majority of students from small towns are white and just over 40 percent are economically disadvantaged.

Ohio students characteristics in small town areas table

Source: Author calculations based on Ohio Department of Education SY 2020-21 downloadable files titled “District Disaggregated” for school district data and “Building Disaggregated” for charter and STEM schools. Note: This table combines districts and charters in both of the small town typologies (i.e., small town: high poverty and small town: low poverty).

Public School Students in Rural Areas Students from rural areas are almost all white and just under half are identified as economically disadvantaged.

Ohio students characteristics in rural areas table

Source: Author calculations based on Ohio Department of Education SY 2020-21 downloadable files titled “District Disaggregated” for school district data and “Building Disaggregated” for charter and STEM schools. Note: This table combines districts and charters in both of the rural typologies (i.e., rural: average poverty and rural: high poverty).

Ohio's Twenty-Five Largest Districts by Enrollment (2020-21)

Ohio's twenty-five largest school districts by enrollment 2017 - 2018

Note: Ohio Virtual Academy, a statewide e-school, is considered equivalent to a school district. This table does not include charter or STEM students as part of the district’s student population. Enrollment changes of less than +/- 1 percent are considered to have had no substantive change (marked as “--“).

School
Options
School Options - Photo students in classroom

Enrollment by Educational Model A large majority of Ohio students attend traditional public school districts, while more than 200,000 students attend non-public schools or participate in home schooling.

Ohio School Options enrollment by educational model table

Sources: All data are for SY 2020-21 and from the Ohio Department of Education (ODE). Data on traditional public schools are from Advanced Reports. Data on chartered non-public schools are from Enrollment Data; and data for non-chartered, non-tax supported schools are from ODE’s webpage, Non-Chartered Non-Tax School Information. Data on homeschooling are from ODE’s webpage Home Schooling.

Public Charter Schools Ohio has 315 charter schools—also known as community schools—serving nearly 115,000 students.

Ohio School Options public charter schools table
 
Ohio School Options public charter schools chart

Sources: Ohio Department of Education (ODE) SY 2020-21 downloadable file titled “Building Overview” was used to calculate enrollments while the community school directory was used to identify the type of charter school. Historical enrollment data were pulled from ODE, Community School Annual Report: 2019-20. Note: Dropout recovery charters are specially designated schools serving students at-risk of dropping out.

Characteristics of Charter Students Roughly 80 percent of charter students are economically disadvantaged, and a majority are Black or Hispanic. Of students attending brick-and-mortar charters, almost 95 percent are from urban areas.

Ohio schools characteristics of charter students table

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2020-21). Note: All statistics in this table, except for the district typology data, include statewide e-schools. Online charters draw students from all areas of the state, so they are not assigned to district typologies.

Interdistrict Open Enrollment Four in five Ohio districts participate in interdistrict open enrollment. Over 80,000 students open enroll, with participation increasing steadily over time.

Ohio school options interdistrict open enrollment chart

Source: Two sources were used for this chart, based on the availability of data. For SY 2002-03 to 2011-12, data from the Ohio Auditor of State, Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Open Enrollment. were used, which cites data from the Ohio Department of Education (ODE). For SY 2012-13 to 2020-21, enrollments were calculated using school districts’ funding reports; see ODE, Traditional Public Schools Funding. For a listing of districts that allow open enrollment, see ODE’s webpage, Open Enrollment.

Private School Scholarships More than 65,000 students use state-funded scholarships (often referred to as vouchers) to attend non-public schools. Student participation has increased over time.

Ohio private school scholarships table
 
Ohio private school scholarships chart

Source: Data are from American Federation for Children, School Choice Yearbook (2021). Note: The chart displays the total number of students in the various scholarship programs. For more information on each scholarship program, see the Ohio Department of Education’s webpage, Scholarships.

Homeschooling Roughly 50,000 Ohio students participate in homeschooling; the number of homeschoolers significantly increased in 2020-21.

Ohio homeschooling chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Homeschool Student Data. Note: Students attending online charter schools are not considered homeschool students.

Student Achievement:
National Exams
Student Achievement National Exams - Photo of teacher and students in classroom setting

National Exams: NAEP 2019 Approximately two in five Ohio students reach the national standard for proficiency, just above the national average.

Ohio student achievement national exams NAEP 2019 chart

Source: National Assessment of Educational Progress: Data Explorer. Note: The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), considered the “Nation’s Report Card,” is administered to a representative sample of students in each state every two years. The exams are given in fourth and eighth grade, reading and math. NAEP allows for cross-state comparisons which are not usually possible with state-administered exams.

Ohio Compared to Other States Nationally, Ohio ranks between 10th and 21th in fourth and eighth grade math and reading. Ohio’s national position has typically been between 10th and 20th for the past decade.

Ohio student achievement national exams how Ohio compared to other states table

Source: 2019 National Assessment of Educational Progress: Data Explorer. Note: The table displays Ohio’s rank on NAEP scores among all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the Department of Defense schools (52 jurisdictions in all).

National Exams: How Ohio Compares to Nearby States When compared to nearby states, Ohio ranks 2nd out of 10 in eighth grade reading proficiency and 4th in eighth grade math proficiency.

Ohio student achievement national exams how Ohio compares to nearby states fourth grade reading chart
 
Ohio student achievement national exams how Ohio compares to nearby states fourth grade math chart

Source: 2019 National Assessment of Educational Progress: Data Explorer.

National Exams: How Ohio Compares to Nearby States When compared to nearby states, Ohio ranks 2nd out of 10 in eighth grade reading proficiency and 4th in eighth grade math proficiency.

Ohio student achievement national exams how Ohio compares to nearby states eighth grade reading chart
 
Ohio student achievement national exams how Ohio compares to nearby states eighth grade math chart

Source: 2019 National Assessment of Educational Progress: Data Explorer.

Ohio’s NAEP Scores over Time: Fourth Grade Ohio’s fourth-grade NAEP reading scores have been generally flat over the past decade, in line with national trends.

Ohio student achievement national exams Ohio's NAEP scores over time fourth grade reading/math charts
 
Ohio student achievement national exams Ohio's NAEP scores over time fourth grade math chart

Source: National Assessment of Educational Progress: Data Explorer. Note: The NAEP trend charts display scaled scores. Scores are reported on a scale of 0 and 500, with the score needed to reach proficient displayed for reference.

Ohio’s NAEP Scores over Time: Eighth Grade Ohio’s eighth grade reading scores have been flat in reading but have risen slightly in math over the past decade.

Ohio student achievement national exams Ohio's NAEP scores over time eighth grade reading chart
 
Ohio student achievement national exams Ohio's NAEP scores over time eighth grade math chart

Source: National Assessment of Educational Progress: Data Explorer. Note: The NAEP trend charts display scaled scores. Scores are reported on a scale of 0 and 500, with the score needed to reach proficient displayed for reference.

National Exams: Achievement by Race/Ethnicity Compared to their national peers, Ohio’s white students achieve at slightly lower levels on fourth-grade exams; Hispanic students at slightly higher levels in reading but lower in math; Black students at lower levels in both subjects.

Ohio 4th grade students reading NAEP by race/ethnicity chart
 
Ohio 4th grade students math NAEP by race/ethnicity chart

Source: 2019 National Assessment of Educational Progress: Data Explorer. Note: NAEP scores are reported on a scale of 0 and 500, with the score needed to reach proficient displayed for reference. Smaller race/ethnic subgroups are omitted for display purposes.

National Exams: Achievement by Race/Ethnicity Compared to national peers, Ohio’s white students achieve at slightly higher levels in both subjects in eighth grade; Hispanic students at significantly higher levels in both subjects; and Black students at slightly lower levels.

Ohio 8th grade students reading NAEP by race/ethnicity chart
 
Ohio 8th grade students math NAEP by race/ethnicity chart

Source: 2019 National Assessment of Educational Progress: Data Explorer. Note: NAEP scores are reported on a scale of 0 and 500, with the score needed to reach proficient displayed for reference. Smaller race/ethnic subgroups are omitted for display purposes.

Student Achievement:
State Exams
Student Achievement State Exams - Photo of students in classroom setting

Statewide Achievement in Selected Grades and Subjects 56 and 59 percent of Ohio fourth grade students reach proficient or above on state English language arts (ELA) and math exams, respectively.

Ohio student achievement state exams statewide achievement fourth grade reading/math chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2020-21). Note: Percentages may not add due to rounding. The percentages, including the proficiency rates, reflect the fraction of tested students scoring in each achievement level. In ELA, 5 percent of fourth graders were untested in 2020-21; in math, 6 percent were untested.

Statewide Achievement in Selected Grades and Subjects 53 and 42 percent of Ohio eighth grade students reach proficient or above on state English language arts (ELA) and math exams, respectively.

Ohio student achievement state exams statewide achievement eighth grade reading/math chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2020-21). Note: Percentages may not add due to rounding. Approximately four in five eighth graders take the grade-level math assessment, while others take high school end-of-course math exams that better align with coursework. In ELA, 7 percent of eighth graders were untested in 2020-21; in math, 9 percent were untested.

Achievement Gaps On average, Black and Hispanic students achieve at lower levels than their white peers on fourth grade state exams.

Ohio student achievement state exams statewide achievement by racial or ethnic subgroup fourth grade chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2020-21). Note: Other race/ethnic subgroups are not shown for display purposes. Asian/Pacific Islander students achieve, on average, at higher levels than white students; multiracial students achieve at levels between white and Hispanic students.

Achievement Gaps On average, Black and Hispanic students achieve at lower levels than their white peers on eighth grade state exams.

Ohio student achievement state exams statewide achievement by racial or ethnic subgroup eighth grade chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2020-21). Note: Other race/ethnic subgroups are omitted for display purposes. Asian/Pacific Islander students achieve, on average, at higher levels than white students; multi-racial students achieve at levels between white and Hispanic students.

Achievement Gaps On average, economically disadvantaged students achieve at lower levels than their peers on fourth and eighth grade state exams.

Ohio student achievement by economic disadvantage fourth and eighth grade proficient or above chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2020-21). Note: For more on the identification of economically disadvantaged students, see Student Enrollment section.

Achievement Gaps Versus Prior Years Achievement gaps widened significantly in fourth grade but more modestly in eighth grade between 2018-19 and 2020-21.

Ohio student achievement gaps versus prior years table

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports (SY 2015-16 to 2020-21). Note: This table displays the percentage point difference in proficiency rates between, e.g., Black and white students. “Low-high income” gap refers to the difference in proficiency rates between economically disadvantaged students and those who are not so identified. No data are available for 2019-20 due to test cancellations that year.

Student Achievement by District Typology Fourth grade proficiency rates are highest in Ohio’s suburban areas and lowest in urban areas.

Ohio student achievement by district typology fourth grade ELA chart
 
Ohio student achievement by district typology fourth grade  Math chart

Source: Author calculations based on Ohio Department of Education (ODE) SY 2020-21 downloadable files titled “District Achievement” for school district data and “Building Achievement” for charter and STEM schools. Note: These charts combine data across similar typologies (e.g., urban: very high poverty and urban: high poverty). The typology averages are weighted by the number of students tested in each district, charter, or STEM school, as reported in ODE’s downloadable file “District Spring 2021 Assessments.”

Student Achievement by District Typology Eighth grade proficiency rates are highest in Ohio’s suburban areas and lowest in urban areas.

Ohio student achievement by district typology eighth grade ELA and Math chart
 
Ohio student achievement by district typology eighth grade ELA and Math chart

Source: Author calculations based on Ohio Department of Education (ODE) SY 2020-21 downloadable files titled “District Achievement” for school district data and “Building Achievement” for charter and STEM schools. Note: These charts combine data across similar typologies (e.g., urban: very high poverty and urban: high poverty). The typology averages are weighted by the number of students tested in each district, charter, or STEM school, as reported in ODE’s downloadable “District Spring 2021 Assessments.”

Proficiency Trends in Fourth and Eighth Grade Proficiency rates on state exams dipped in 2020-21, reflecting Covid-related disruptions to students’ education.

Ohio students proficiency trends in fourth grade ELA and Math chart
 
Ohio students proficiency trends in eighth grade ELA and Math chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports. Note: No data are available for 2019-20 due to test cancellations that year.

Proficiency Trends on Selected High School Exams Proficiency rates on state end-of-course (EOC) exams declined in 2020-21— more so in math—reflecting Covid-related disruptions to students’ education

Ohio students proficiency trends high school English chart
 
Ohio students proficiency trends high school Math (Algebra/Geometry) chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports. Note: These proficiency rates do not include exam retakes. A large majority of students take Algebra I and Geometry exams, with about one in ten taking the state’s Integrated Math I and II exams instead. No data are available for 2019-20 due to test cancellations that year.

Proficiency on All State Exams The percent of Ohio students reaching proficiency or above on the various state exams ranges widely from 40 to 70 percent.

Ohio student proficiency on all state exams math and english grades 3 through 8 and high school table

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Advanced Reports. Note: EOC proficiency rates do not include the results of students retaking an exam. A large majority of students take Algebra I and Geometry EOCs, while less than one in ten take the state’s Integrated Math I and II exams instead (those results are not shown). No data are available for 2019-20 due to test cancellations that year.

Post-Secondary Readiness
and Outcomes
College Readiness - Photo of ohio students in school setting

ACT Scores Over Time Ohio’s average ACT composite score fell below the national average beginning with the class of 2018 when all Ohio juniors began taking a college admissions exam.

Ohio students college readiness ACT scores over time chart

Source: ACT, U.S. High School Graduating Class Trends; for historical data, see, e.g., ACT, Graduation Class of 2014—Ohio. Note: This chart displays the average ACT composite score across the four tested subjects (English, math, reading, and science) for the graduating classes of 2005 to 2021. Practically all Ohio students in the classes of 2018-20 took the ACT exams, while about three in four had done so in previous years. Participation was somewhat down for the class of 2021 (roughly 85 percent). Composite scores are reported on a scale of 0 to 36.

Average ACT Scores by Race/Ethnicity Gaps in average ACT scores exist between racial/ethnic groups; disparities have not narrowed significantly over the past decade.

Ohio students college readiness average ACT scores by race/ethnicity chart

Source: ACT, U.S. High School Graduating Class Trends; for historical data, see, e.g., ACT, Graduation Class of 2014—Ohio. Note: ACT reports data for several smaller race/ethnic student groups that are not displayed on this figure.

ACT Exam: College Readiness of the Class of 2021 College readiness varies by ACT content area—from 31 percent in science to 50 percent in English. Just 22 percent of Ohio students reach college ready benchmarks in all four areas of the ACT.

Ohio students college readiness class of 2021

Source: ACT, U.S. High School Graduating Class Trends. Note: ACT establishes minimum test scores in each subject that indicate readiness for college coursework in that area. For more on the college- ready benchmarks, see ACT, What are the ACT College Readiness Benchmarks?

Industry Credentials Earned Just 7 percent of Ohio students earn industry-recognized credentials before graduating. Students from rural schools have the highest rates of credentials earned (11 percent), while those from suburban schools have the lowest (4 percent).

Ohio students industry credentials earned before graduation by typology chart

Source: Author calculations based on Ohio Department of Education SY 2020-21 downloadable files titled “District Prepared for Success” for school district data and “Building Prepared for Success” for charter and STEM schools. Note: The rates indicate the percentage of students earning 12 or more points in Ohio’s industry credentialing system. Data are from the classes of 2019 and 2020, including non-graduates. The typology averages are weighted by the number of students in these cohorts in each district, charter, or STEM school.

Advanced Placement (AP) Scores 14 percent of Ohio students graduate having earned a passing score on an AP exam. 32 percent of students from suburban schools earn a passing AP score, while only 4 percent of rural students do so.

Ohio students college readiness advanced placement (AP) scores typology chart

Source: Author calculations based on Ohio Department of Education SY 2020-21 downloadable files titled “District Prepared for Success” for school district data and “Building Prepared for Success” for charter and STEM schools. Note: The rates indicate the percentage of students earning a score of at least 3 out of 5 possible points on one or more AP exams. Students who did not take an AP exam are included in the denominator. Data are from the classes of 2019 and 2020, including non- graduates. The typology averages are weighted by the number of students in these cohorts in each district, charter, or STEM school.

Dual Enrollment Credit 26 percent of Ohio students earn college credit through dual enrollment programs. Three in ten students in suburban, small town, and rural Ohio earn credits, while fewer urban students do so.

Ohio students dual enrollment college credits earned chart

Source: Author calculations based on Ohio Department of Education SY 2020-21 downloadable files titled “District Prepared for Success” for school district data and “Building Prepared for Success” for charter and STEM schools. Note: The rates indicate the percentage of students earning 3 or more college credits through a dual high school/college enrollment program. Data are from the classes of 2019 and 2020, including non-graduates. The typology averages are weighted by the number of students in these cohorts in each district, charter, or STEM school.

Four-Year High School Graduation Rates 87 percent of Ohio students graduate high school in four years. Graduation rates exceed 90 percent in much of the state, with lower rates in urban schools.

Ohio students four year high school graduation rates chart

Source: Author calculations based on Ohio Department of Education SY 2020-21 downloadable files titled “District Graduation Rates” for school district data and “Building Graduation Rates” for charter and STEM schools. Note: The graduation rates indicate the percentage of students in the class of 2020 who earned a high school diploma within four years of entering ninth grade. The typology averages are weighted by the number of students in the class of 2020 in each district, charter, or STEM school.

Industry Credentials and AP Exam Trends Attainment of industry credentials has increased since 2014, as have AP passage rates. Results, however, were somewhat lower on both metrics for the class of 2020.

Percent earning industry credentials chart
Percent passing at least on AP exam

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Download Data, files titled “State Prepared for Success.”

Trends in Dual Enrollment and High School Graduation Dual enrollment credits earned and high school graduation rates have consistently increased over the past seven years.

Percent earning at least three dual enrollment credits chart
 
Four-year graduation rates chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Download Data, files titled “State Prepared for Success.”

College Enrollment Rates 53 percent of Ohio students enroll in two or four year colleges after high school. Enrollment is highest among students from suburban areas (72 percent) and lower in other regions.

Ohio students college enrollment rates

Source: Author calculations based on Ohio Department of Education SY 2020-21 downloadable files titled “District Prepared for Success” for school district data and “Building Prepared for Success” for charter and STEM schools. Note: The chart displays the percent of the high school graduating class of 2018 (including non-graduates) that enrolled in a two- or four-year college within two years of high school. Post-secondary enrollment data are from the National Student Clearinghouse and include non-Ohio colleges. The typology averages are weighted by the number of students in the class of 2018 in each district, charter, or STEM school.

College Completion Rates 31 percent of Ohio students attain at least an associate degree within six years of leaving high school. College completion rates are highest among students who attended high school in suburban areas (49 percent), with lower rates among students from urban communities (17 percent).

Ohio students college completion rates chart

Source: Author calculations based on Ohio Department of Education SY 2020-21 downloadable files titled “District Prepared for Success” for school district data and “Building Prepared for Success” for charter and STEM schools. Note: Data display the percent of the high school class of 2014 (including non-graduates) who earned at least an associate degree within six years of high school. Post- secondary completion data are from the National Student Clearinghouse and include non-Ohio colleges. The typology averages are weighted by the number of students in the class of 2014 in each district, charter, or STEM school.

Trends in College Enrollment and Completion College enrollment has decreased in recent years, while college completion rates have been largely flat.

Ohio college enrollment
Ohio college completion

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Downloadable Data, files titled “State Prepared for Success.”

Ohio’s
Educators
Ohio's Educators - Photo of teacher and students in classroom setting

Public School Teachers Ohio public schools employ roughly 100,000 teachers, equivalent to about 17 students per teacher. The number of teachers has declined over the past decade.

Ohio educators number of teachers by year 2006 - 2019 chart
 
Ohio educators number of students per teacher 2006 - 2019 chart

Source: DataOhio, Education Employee Positions and Demographics—Public. Note: The number of students per teacher is calculated based on student enrollment counts reported in the Student Enrollment section.

Characteristics of Ohio Teachers Three in four teachers are female, and a large majority are white. Almost all teachers hold a bachelor’s degree or higher.

Ohio educators characteristics of teachers table

Source: DataOhio, Education Employee Positions and Demographics—Public (SY 2019-20).

Public School Non-Teaching Employees Ohio public schools employ just over 230,000 non-teaching employees, or about 7 students per non-teaching staff.

Ohio educators number of non-teaching employees chart
Ohio educators students per non-teaching employee chart

Source: DataOhio, Education Employee Positions and Demographics—Public. Note: Starting in 2015, the state appears to have changed its method for counting staff who work as student advisors, coaches, or in extracurriculars (large increases are observed across those positions). The number of students per non-teaching staff is calculated based on student enrollment counts reported in the Student Enrollment section.

Characteristics of Non-Teaching Employees Ohio public schools employ more than 230,000 non-teaching staff, including administrators, instructional aides, counselors, and other support positions.

Ohio educators characteristics of non-teaching employees table

Source: DataOhio, Education Employee Positions and Demographics—Public (SY 2019-20). Note: The high percentage in the “other certificate or degree not-applicable” category is likely explained by positions that do not have specific degree requirements and thus no degree was recorded.

Teacher Salaries On average, public school teachers in Ohio earn about $65,000 per year. Teachers in suburban schools typically earn more than their peers in other areas.

Ohio educators teacher salaries by typology chart

Source: Author calculations based on Ohio Department of Education, District Profile Reports (FY 2020). Note: The typology averages are weighted by district enrollment in SY 2019-20; charter school data are not included in this figure because they are not included in the District Profile Reports. Salary data exclude healthcare and retirement benefits.

Administrator Salaries Ohio public schools employ approximately 15,000 administrators, including superintendents, treasurers, and principals. On average, they earn about $85,000 per year with administrators in suburban schools typically earning higher salaries.

Ohio educators school administrator salaries by typology chart

Source: Author calculations based on Ohio Department of Education, District Profile Reports (FY 2020). Note: The typology averages are weighted by district enrollment in SY 2019-20; charter school data are not included in this figure because they are not included in the District Profile Reports. Salary data exclude healthcare and retirement benefits. The administrative positions included in this figure are described on the District Profile Reports webpage.

Trends in Teacher and Administrator Salaries Average teacher and administrator salaries declined between 2010 and 2015 but have risen since then.

Ohio educators trends in teacher and administrator salaries chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, District Profile Reports (FY 2006 to 2020). Note: The 2006 to 2019 salary data were adjusted to 2020 price levels using the consumer price index (CPI).

School
Funding
School Funding - Photo student in classroom

How Ohio Funds Public Schools Ohio public schools receive approximately $26 billion per year from local, state, and federal revenues, with modest non-taxpayer support. State taxpayer funds provide 42 percent of total revenues, while local taxes contribute 44 percent. Federal and non-tax revenues provide the rest.

Ohio school funding how Ohio funds public schools pie chart

Source: The total amount of funding for Ohio public schools is from U.S. Department of Education, Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: FY 19, Table 1. The breakdown of revenue by source is from the Ohio Department of Education, District Profile Reports (FY 2020). Note: Other non-tax revenue includes sales of assets, fees, and investment income.

How Ohio Funds Public Schools: Trend Over Time The state share of funding has remained largely consistent over the past 15 years, between 42 and 45 percent of total funding. Since 2013, the local share has been between 41 and 44 percent of overall funding.

How Ohio funds public schools - trends over time chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education (ODE), District Profile Reports (FY 2006 to 2020). Note: Prior to FY 2013, ODE did not report any revenue as “other non-tax,” a category that includes sales of assets, fees, and investment income. Previously, most of those types of revenues were reported as local funds, though some other non-tax revenues were not previously reported.

Education in the State Budget The state spends 43 percent of its overall budget on K-12 education. The share dedicated to education has generally risen since 2006, though it has declined slightly in recent years.

How Ohio funds education in the state budget chart

Source: Ohio Legislative Service Commission, Historical Revenues and Expenditures, Table 2. Note: This chart shows K–12 education spending as a percentage of the state’s general revenue fund, lottery profits education fund, and local government fund. It excludes federal dollars that are included in the overall state budget (including federal funds for K–12 education).

How Funds Are Spent Roughly 60 percent of education funding is spent on classroom instruction. The remainder supports administration, building operations, and other activities.

Ohio school funding - how funds are spent pie chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education (ODE), District Profile Reports (FY 2020). Note: The expenditure data used in this chart do not include capital outlay (e.g., construction or interest on debt); see Capital Outlay and Debt Service for those expenditures.

How Funds Are Spent: Salaries and Benefits As a percentage of public schools’ instructional expenses, 61 percent are spent on salaries and 23 percent go toward benefits. Educator salaries have become a smaller share of instructional spending since 2005, while benefits have remained largely consistent.

Ohio school funding - how funds are spent on salaries and benefits chart

Source: U.S. Department of Education (USED), Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: FY 19, Table 6 and the historical data are from USED, Digest of Education Statistics. Note: Benefits include spending on retirement, healthcare, worker’s compensation, and tuition reimbursement. Instructional spending on salaries and benefits do not equal 100% due to other expenses such as instructional materials and curriculum development.

Expenditure Per Pupil On average, Ohio schools spend $12,692 per pupil in operational expenditures. Urban districts have the highest per pupil expenditures ($14,447), while small town districts spend the least ($11,295 per pupil).

Ohio school expenditures per pupil typology chart

Source: Author calculations based on data from the Ohio Department of Education, District Profile Reports (FY 2020). Note: The typology average per-pupil expenditures are weighted by district enrollment in SY 2019-20. Charter schools are not included in these data because they are not included in the District Profile Reports. The expenditure data used for this chart exclude capital outlay (e.g., construction or interest on debt).

Expenditure Per Pupil Compared to Nearby States Ohio spends slightly more than the national average and more than most nearby states, but falls below Pennsylvania and Illinois.

Ohio schools expenditures per pupil compared to nearby states chart

Source: U.S. Department of Education (USED), Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: FY 19, Table 4. Note: The chart displays operational expenditures per pupil (excluding capital expenses such as construction and interest on debt). The data are from 2018-19, the most recently published national statistics. Likely due to reporting differences, USED and ODE funding data (as displayed in other figures) may not exactly match.

Public School Expenditures Over Time Statewide, inflation-adjusted expenditures per pupil have have ranged from $11,500 to $12,700 per pupil over the past decade. In 2020, spending was at its highest point during the period displayed below.

Ohio school expenditures over time chart

Source: Ohio Department of Education, District Profile Reports (FY 2006 to 2020). Note: Statewide expenditures per pupil for FY 2006-19 are inflation-adjusted to 2020 dollars, using the Bureau of Labor Statistics CPI Inflation Calculator.

Capital Outlay and Debt Service Ohio public schools spend more than $2 billion per year on capital outlay— expenditures on construction, land, and equipment—and roughly $500 million on interest on debt.

Ohio school capital outlay and debt service chart

Note: U.S. Department of Education (USED), Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: FY 19, Table 7 and the historical data are from USED, Digest of Education Statistics. For FY 2006-18, expenditures are inflation-adjusted to 2019 dollars, using the Bureau of Labor Statistics CPI Inflation Calculator.

Click the button below to share on your Facebook Page